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Installation of Grit Chamber Figure Inventoried Sinkholes in the Wykoff Area Figure Sinkhole Sealing Plan Figure Volunteer Planting on Southeast Shore Figure West Shore Before Restoration Figure West Shore Excavation Figure West Shore After Restoration Figure Water and Wetlands Figure A. Existing Land Cover Figure A. Elevation Figure A. Soils Figure A. Majore Basins Figure A. Surficial Geology Figure A.

Bedrock Geology Figure A. Bedrock Outcrops Figure A. Major Aquifers Figure A. Known Karst Features Figure A. Anoka Sandplain Figure A. Scientific and Natural Areas Figure A. Impaired Waters Figure F. Trout Resources Figure F. Coastal Program Boundary Figure F. Calcareous Fens Figure F. Water and Wetlands Figure F. Volume Reduction Practices Table 4. Potential Members to Invite to a Roundtable Table 5. Permitting Worksheet Table 6. Best Management Practices Matrix Table 7.

Receiving Water Factors Table 7. Climate, Terrain, and Soil Factors Table 7. Stormwater Treatment Suitability Table 7. Physical Feasibility at the Site Table 7. Location-Specific Restrictions and Setbacks Table 8. Modeling Tool Selection Table 8. Applicability of BMPs for cold climate use Table Summary of Stormwater Credits Function Table Soil Amendments Table Municipal Pollution Prevention Methods Table Temporary Sediment Control Practices Table Minimum Setback Requirements for bioretention practices that treat a volume of gallons or more Table Cost Components for Bioretention Practices Table Design Infiltration Rates Table Design Restrictions for Special Waters Table Cost Components for Filtration Practices Table Settling Chamber Surface Area Table Minimum setback requirements Table Infiltration Practices Cost Components Table Table Cost Components for Stormwater Ponds Table References to Other Manuals Table Stormwater Wetland Design Criteria Table Percent Removal of Key Pollutants Table Primary cost components for stormwater wetlands Table Model Ordinance Sources Table L.

Discussion within this team led to the recognition that a state-sponsored stormwater manual was needed to provide guidance for the many practitioners trying to make their way through a complicated stormwater management program in the state. Brad Aldrich Kevin Biehn, R. Cecilio Olivier, P. Jennifer Olson, P. Joel Peterson, Ph. Jodi Polzin, P. Sheila Sahu, P. Sally Hoyt Jennifer Zielinski, P. A listing of contributors and participants in the process appears in the Acknowledgement section.

Throughout the production of the Manual, one singular goal was kept in mind —to produce a useful product that helps the everyday user better manage stormwater. Although stormwater management to control the pollution of receiving waters has been around in earnest for over 20 years in Minnesota, the advent of many new programs means that guidance is needed more than ever.

Related to this was the charge to produce a Manual that does not duplicate the many good sources of information already available. Because Minnesota is fortunate enough to have had many additional tools created over the years, the Manual will often forego detailed explanation of a particular element and send the user directly to another resource via electronic linkage or cited reference.

These linked resources provide information that Minnesota stormwater managers can put to use in conjunction with this Minnesota Stormwater Manual. The Manual is intended to be flexible, easily updated and responsive to the needs of the Minnesota stormwater community. The Stormwater Steering Committee members agreed to support this Manual and relay it to the public.

Although all members do not agree with all elements or concepts contained in the Manual, they did support release of the Manual as a constructive tool for use by stormwater professionals, regulators, plan reviewers, and the public. Concepts presented in this Manual are intended to be flexible guidance for users rather than stringent rules. Each stormwater problem is different, so solutions will need to be customized to address this variation. This Manual provides the tools, but Stormwater Steering Committee Vision: to ensure a high quality of life, Minnesotans must manage stormwater in a way that conserves, enhances and restores highquality water in our rivers, lakes, streams, wetlands, and ground water.

PrefaCe 49 the user must provide the ingenuity. This Manual provides direction and guidance for stormwater management in Minnesota. The Stormwater Steering Committee wants you, through your active use of and feedback on the Manual, to help Minnesota reach our vision for stormwater management in Minnesota. The Manual is intended as a guidance document. Others help to clarify how and when to use currently accepted practices to meet water quality goals.

The Manual looks beyond current practices and addresses special situations such as protection of a trout stream or stormwater management in karst areas. Some practices discussed are designed to address unique site conditions and may not be readily adaptable for across-the-board applications. The Manual does not establish new regulatory requirements and does not supersede existing local, state or federal requirements. Because the Manual combines standard practices with innovative and site specific recommendations, it is strongly recommended that regulators use this Manual only as supporting guidance and not wholly incorporate the Manual by reference in regulatory requirements.

Case studies on the use and implementation of the Manual recommendations will be particularly useful. Please submit comments and suggested updates based on new technologies, better information, or new studies, to assist us in keeping the Manual accurate and relevant.

The Stormwater Steering Committee hopes you find the Manual to be an effective tool in managing stormwater runoff in Minnesota. Not only is Minnesota the home of more than 10, lakes, but there are also some 69, miles of rivers and streams, over nine million acres of wetlands, nearly 2, miles of trout streams, and ground water aquifers and surface water sources capable of producing drinking water for about four million residents.

The headwaters of the Mississippi River are located in the state and we border the largest freshwater lake in the world, Lake Superior. Protecting, restoring, and maintaining these natural resources, although challenging, must be a priority for all Minnesotans. Protecting the waters of our state plays a huge role in protecting the culture and heritage of our home.

As thousands of acres of land are converted annually from rural and open areas to urbanized communities, the impacts on stormwater runoff can become extreme. With these changes to the surface of the land comes the responsibility of assuring that surrounding waters are not adversely affected. As development escalates, so does runoff. With urbanization, the natural infiltration of water into the ground is reduced. Larger runoff volumes, quicker and higher runoff peaks, and increased erosion are a few of the results that lead to more pollutants eventually making their way to the receiving waters.

The challenge for all Minnesotans is to control runoff rate and volume as well as the material that this water picks up on its way to a receiving water. This Manual explores a variety of management approaches designed to lesson the impacts of development. Although other sources of runoff, such as agriculture and forestry can contribute to water quality deterioration, this Manual focuses on urban sources related to development.

Totally eliminating land conversion is not a feasible option, so appropriate and innovative measures must be taken to minimize the negative impact of development. The Manual explores an array of best management practices BMPs that can be implemented to control sediment and reduce runoff in a practical and flexible manner on the site. The focus of this Manual is to guide users in such a way that all possible measures are taken to ensure proper, responsible stormwater management.

There are many bodies of water in Minnesota that have already been impacted by various pollutants and are in need of improvement. This number is an increase from the list, and it is anticipated that there will be another increase observed when the April list is published.

This is the result of better data collection that allows for more assessment of where actual impairments are occurring. This was done with the hope of initiating discussions on methods to improve stormwater management, the definition of what constitutes an improvement, and better options for implementing such improvements. The intent of the Manual is to promote innovation and generate ideas of new stormwater management practices. Users will also note that this Manual is not an erosion and sediment control handbook, nor is it a BMP manual, although there are features of each within the Manual.

Again, users are directed to available resources so that this Manual did not become so long as to be cumbersome and therefore unused. Elements of the Manual exist for each of the six required Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System MS4 components and could be used by communities to assist in preparing their permit material. An additional handbook on MS4 requirements was prepared by the League of Minnesota Cities for more information contact Randy Neprash rneprash bonestroo.

Fishing waters: 3,, acres Fishable lakes: 5, Fishable streams cold and warm water : 15, miles Trout streams: 1, miles Forest land: State population: 4,, Population density people per square mile : All pertinent urban stormwater information is presented or referenced and linked in a single document, including resource and climate maps, regulatory framework, BMP design and performance, available tools and a glossary of common and uncommon terms.

BMP screening and selection, performance, design, cost, and maintenance. Cold climate impacts and management applications. Case study successes are presented. Manual Organization The Minnesota stormwater Manual is designed to be a user-friendly and flexible document that guides users directly to the information they need, depending upon the question they need to answer or Best Management Practice BMP they need to design.

The full scope of the Manual is outlined in the Table of Contents. The Manual is divided into two parts to assist the reader in obtaining either general or specific design information. Volume 1 - Integrated Stormwater Management Integrated stormwater management is an approach that acknowledges the relationship among the many factors that influence stormwater behavior.

It recognizes the volume, rate, and quality aspects of stormwater management, as well as the relationship between ground water and surface water. It recognizes that dealing with one factor can lead to repercussions with other factors. Fore example, infiltrating water to improve a volume problem could lead to ground water impacts at an entirely different location. Integrating all of the factors affecting stormwater is also a basic tenet of the treatment train approach.

Chapter 3 continues the discussion of integrated stormwater management techniques. Volume 1 contains the background information necessary to apply proper stormwater management techniques. This volume contains information on management principles and the basis for them in Chapters 1 and 2.

It walks the user through a series of steps in Chapters 3 and 4 to assure that good site design is the first step to proper stormwater management. It is always assumed that the first step in stormwater management is to reduce the amount of runoff occurring by soaking in as much precipitation as possible where it falls. Because full runoff reduction is usually not possible, the Manual demonGo to Table of Contents.

CHaPter 1. Under this strategy, illustrated in Figure 1. Then, if needed, further controls are implemented to manage water that is moving within or away from the site. Chapter 5 summarizes the existing stormwater regulatory framework in Minnesota and aids the reader in identifying the proper agency or program, dependent upon the type of resource in question.

This chapter is also linked to additional information in the appendices. Chapter 6 includes a discussion of stormwater management and mosquito impacts. Chapters 6 and 7 describe the process of BMP selection and provide guidance for choosing the single best BMP or group of BMPs to address a particular stormwater management objective.

Volume 2 - Technical and Engineering Guidance Volume 2 contains the technical detail that stormwater managers need to design and implement specific practices and regulators need to check the efficiency of designs. The design calculations for determining runoff volumes, where water goes and how it can be routed begin in Chapter 10 with the Unified Sizing Criteria. This chapter was developed in response to the repeated request by stormwater managers to use a consistent minimum approach statewide.

Chapter 11 follows this up with suggestions for how state and local government units can offer credits for good water management practices that may be used to offset some of the requirements that otherwise would be in place. Chapter 12 contains two levels of BMP design information. The first level is a series of Fact Sheets that were developed to present summary information that summarizes the practice and refers the reader elsewhere for details.

The second level are Guidance Sheets, which provide in-depth engineering detail for the design of more structural BMPs for which Minnesota-specific guidance is needed. Chapter 13 addresses various physical and land use factors that impact stormwater management. Geology , soils and land use variations are discussed in terms of their potential impact.

Chapter 14 winds-up the Manual with some case study examples of how good, innovative stormwater management has occurred in Minnesota. Twelve appendices A-L contain supplemental information on such variable items as construction support documents, computer modeling, Minnesota plant lists, and special and other sensitive waters locations. Appendix J links the reader to a series of ten Issue Papers on key topics that were prepared for review by the Manual Sub-Committee during Manual preparation.

Users of the Manual2. The target audience for the Manual is the stormwater practitioner who needs to know about all facets of good stormwater management in urban and urbanizing areas. This could include a city water planner wondering what to add to an MS4 BMP section, an engineering consultant serving many different clients in need of good stormwater management, a contractor in need of guidance to properly implement regulations, a state or local regulator, a watershed manager or any of a number of other potential users.

The Manual is designed to address variable levels of expertise in a flexible manner. It is by no means all-inclusive. For this reason, when appropriate, links will take the user to many excellent documents available elsewhere. Those users who are already familiar with background material presented in the Manual need only peruse it for a refresher. The Regulatory Relationship of the Manual The stormwater regulatory framework in Minnesota can be complex and confusing even to those dealing with it on a frequent basis.

Many regulated parties might argue that too much regulation occurs, whereas those interested in resource protection could argue the opposite. Answers to all of the regulatory questions that might arise cannot possibly Go to Table of Contents. Instead, this document identifies the agency or program to contact for the appropriate up-to-date interpretation needed.

Chapter 5 and Appendices F and G provide the detail needed to work through the stormwater regulatory program in Minnesota. The major federal, state, regional, and local agencies, programs and regulations related to stormwater are summarized, including those of the following agencies : U.

They carefully lay-out the means through which a potential pollution source will be identified and controlled. Attention has been paid in the Manual to avoid language that appears to mandate new stormwater requirements. This Manual is intended to be a flexible guidance document for stormwater managers to use in their everyday activities. MPCA has stated its commitment to keeping Minnesota stormwater regulations current with advances in the field.

This commitment could mean regulatory revisions in the future, but this is not the intent of this Manual. Throughout the Manual preparation process the question has been asked as to why the state is producing another Manual when at least two others already exist. Much of the concepts and information presented in the manual is out-of-date because of the rapidly changing stormwater field.

This Manual will supplement the other two, and in combination they will provide a more comprehensive overview of stormwater management in Minnesota. Why not simply use one of the large number of stormwater manuals available through other states?

These are readily obtained via the Web sites of the states and the best examples are linked through the appendices of this Manual. Although some cold weather states have manuals, the Stormwater Steering Committee determined that a manual that contains information directly applicable to Minnesota would best serve users. A Vermont design strategy might not come close to the requirements of the Minnesota Construction General Permit, for example.

Links direct Minnesota users to out-of-state resources if the resource could be of further assistance. Keep Updated About Manual Changes5. It is the intent of the SSC to keep this Manual as up-to-date as possible. Material in the rapidly changing field of stormwater management can become obsolete very quickly. Readers are encouraged to record and bookmark any changes in this address that might occur with future revisions. The Manual has been prepared to be predominantly an electronic resource.

The intent is to have the Manual n an evolving electronic format. The Manual has always been viewed by the SSC as a fluid and flexible document that must be updated when new information becomes available or when ideas change. The formal updating process will not be determined until after the Manual is accepted by the SSC. Possibilities for updating include a round of revisions after the public training sessions in early , continual updating on the MPCA Web site whenever new information is available or periodic perhaps biennial review and updating.

This is Version 1. Each section will be marked with the current version number. Subsequent small-scale changes in chapters will be noted as changes to Version 1. Version 1. Major or large-scale changes in the entire document could lead to a change to Version numbering ex.

Version 2. The revisions referred to in the previous section will occur as new techniques become available and as experience in use of the Manual grows. Finally, those finding technical errors or noting omisGo to Table of Contents. F Select the proper model to use for my unique situation? J Find out which watershed and organization I am located within? Stormwater Education1. The material contained in this Manual, and especially the background material comprising this chapter, can be used to educate public officials and citizens on the necessity to plan adequately for stormwater.

Although the average Minnesotan is very water-savvy, there is a continual need to keep our youth and those desiring to learn better served. Minnesota is very fortunate to have a great many educational programs available to its citizens. What is Stormwater2. Prior to development, stormwater is a small component of the annual water balance. However, as development increases, the paving of pervious surfaces that is, surfaces able to soak water into the ground with new roads, shopping centers, driveways and rooftops all adds up to mean less water soaks into the ground and more water runs off.

Figure 2. This adaptation from the University of Washington shows how the relative percentages of water soaking into the ground change once development begins in a forested area. Note that the numbers assigned to the arrows depicting the movement of water will vary depending upon location within Minnesota.

General information on regional precipitation, infilGo to Table of Contents. CHaPter 2. The Center for Watershed Protection has helped document the adverse impact that increased imperviousness that is, water not able to soak into the ground has on the health of receiving streams.

Other factors such as morphology, landscape setting, inherent soils and geology, and land use history could be equally as important. This is not meant to ignore or minimize the impact that agricultural or silvicultural activities can have on our receiving waters. Rather, the Manual focuses on the transition from rural and open space to urban uses, and on the management of stormwater from the increased impervious surfaces that result.

Why Stormwater Matters3. The initial focus of implementing the provisions of the CWA was logically on point sources of pollution, or those discharges coming from the end of an industrial or municipal wastewater pipe. Progress in addressing these discharges was made rapidly, although vigilance is still required to assure continued protection. Owners and operators of certain storm drainage systems are now required to comply with design, construction, and maintenance requirements set by the MPCA for the State of Minnesota.

Physical Changes to the Drainage System The changes in the landscape that occur during the transition from rural and open space to urbanized land use have a profound effect on the movement of water off of the land. The problems associated with urbanization originate in the changes in landscape, the increased volume of runoff, and the quickened manner in which it moves.

Urban development within a watershed has a number of direct impacts on downstream waters and waterways, including changes to stream flow behavior and stream geometry, degradation of aquatic habitat, and extreme water level fluctuation. The cumulative impact of these changes should be recognized as a stormwater management approach is assembled. The changes in streams draining altered watersheds are very apparent Figure 2. Although similar changes can occur from intensive agricultural or silvicultural activities, the Manual focuses on the impacts of changes associated with development.

Notable responses include: Increased Runoff Volumes: Land surface changes can dramatically increase the total volume of runoff generated in a developed watershed through compaction of soils and introduction of impervious surfaces. Increased Peak Runoff Discharges: Rainfall quickly runs off impervious surfaces instead of being released gradually as in more natural landscapes.

Increased peak discharges for a developed watershed can be two- to five- times higher than those for an undisturbed watershed. Control programs that may address runoff rates do not fully address many of the problems associated with stormwater runoff. Greater Runoff Velocities: Impervious surfaces and compacted soils, as well as improvements to the drainage system such as storm drains, pipes, and ditches, increase the speed at which rainfall runs off land surfaces within a watershed.

Shorter Times of Concentration: As runoff velocities increase, it takes less time for water to run off the land and reach a stream or other waterbody. Increased Frequency of Bank-full and Near Bank-full Events: Increased runoff volumes and peak flows increase the frequency and duration of smaller bank-full and near bank-full events, which are the primary channel forming events. Increased Flooding: Increased runoff volumes and peaks also increase the frequency, duration and severity of out-of-bank flooding.

Lower Dry Weather Flows Baseflow : Reduced infiltration of stormwater runoff could cause streams to have less baseflow through shallow ground water inflow during dry weather periods and reduces the amount of rainfall recharging ground water aquifers. Some of the impacts due to urban development include adapted from the Georgia Stormwater Manual, : Stream Widening and Bank Erosion: Stream channels widen to accommodate and convey the increased runoff and higher stream flows from developed areas.

More frequent small and moderate runoff events undercut and scour the lower parts of the streambank, causing the steeper banks to slump and collapse during larger storms. Higher Flow Velocities: Increased streambank erosion rates can cause a stream to widen many times its original size due to post-development runoff. Stream Downcutting: Another way that streams accommodate higher flows is by downcutting their streambed.

Loss of Riparian Canopy: As streambanks are gradually undercut and slump into the channel, the vegetation trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants that had protected the banks are exposed at the roots. This leaves them more likely to be uprooted or eroded during major storms, further weakening bank structure.

Changes in the Channel Bed Due to Sedimentation: Due to channel erosion and other sources upstream, sediments are deposited in the stream as sandbars and other features, covering the channel bed, or substrate, with shifting deposits of mud, silt and sand. This problem is compounded by building and filling in floodplain areas, which cause flood heights to rise even further. Property and structures that had not previously been subject to flooding may now be at risk. Impacts on habitat include adapted from the Georgia Stormwater Manual, : Degradation of Habitat Structure: Higher and faster flows due to development can scour channels and wash away entire biological communities.

Streambank erosion and the loss of riparian vegetation reduce habitat for many fish species and other aquatic life, while sediment deposits can smother bottom-dwelling organisms and aquatic habitat. These pools and riffles provide valuable habitat for fish and aquatic insects.

As a result of the increased flows and sediment loads from urban watersheds, the pools and riffles disappear and are replaced with more uniform, and often shallower, streambeds that provide less varied aquatic habitat. Reduced Baseflows: Reduced baseflows possibly due to increased impervious cover in a watershed and the loss of rainfall infiltration into the soil and water table adversely affect in-stream habitats, especially during periods of drought.

Increased Stream Temperature: Runoff from warm impervious areas e. Increased temperatures can reduce dissolved oxygen levels and disrupt the food chain. Certain aquatic species, such as trout, can only survive within a narrow temperature range. Decline in Abundance and Biodiversity: When there is a reduction in various habitats and habitat quality, both the number and the variety, or diversity, of organisms e.

Sensitive fish species and other life forms disappear and are replaced by those organisms that are better adapted to the poorer conditions. The diversity and composition of the benthic, or streambed, community have frequently been used to evaluate the quality of urban streams. Aquatic insects are a useful environmental indicator as they form the base of the stream food chain. Fish and other aquatic organisms are impacted not only by the habitat changes brought on by increased stormwater runoff quantity, but are often also adversely affected by water quality changes due to development and resultant land use activities in a watershed.

Water Quality Impacts As impervious surfaces increase, more water flows off of urban surfaces and is delivered faster to receiving waters. The increased activity on these surfaces means that more polluting material is available, as well. Minimizing the mobilization of this material and its impact is the goal of good runoff management and the purpose of this Manual.

The conversion of rural and open space land to urban uses is the particular focus of this Manual. The problems associated with the conversion of land emerge as the land surface changes from one that soaks water into the ground to one that inhibits this infiltration. What used to be a small portion of runoff from a rainfall or snowmelt event becomes a major source of runoff volume.

Water that used to soak in collects and flows from these new surfaces with enough energy to erode soil that was formerly held in place with protective vegetative cover and strong roots. Streams generally depend on ground water supplies during dry periods of the year.

When infiltration is reduced or eliminated, this ground water is no longer available to supply baseflow and support the life of the channel. For the same reason, deeper ground water aquifer units receive less recharge. Quantity is not the only problem resulting from changing runoff patterns. The water that washes over these new urban surfaces picks up materials laying upon those surfaces. The sediment from construction erosion, the oil, grease and metals from many automobiles, the fertilizer and pesticides from lawns, and many more new pollutants can adversely impact the receiving waters.

Table 2. Wear from tires, brake and clutch linings, engine oil and lubricant drippings, combustion products and corrosion, all account for build-up of sediment particles, metals, and oils and grease. Wear on road and parking surfaces also provides sediment and petroleum derivatives from asphalt. Spills from traffic accidents can occur on any street or highway. Heavy metals such as lead, zinc, copper, cadmium, and mercury , hydrocarbons such as oil and grease, gasoline, cleaning solvents , salt Na and Cl , sediment Lawn and garden maintenance of all types of land uses including residential, industrial, institutional, parks, and road and utility right-of-ways accounts for additions of organic material from grass clippings, garden litter and fallen leaves.

Fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides all can contribute to pollutant loads in runoff if not properly applied. Organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs , pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs , and phenols, heavy metals, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, hydrocarbons, mercury Municipal maintenance activities including road repair and general maintenance road surface treatment, salting, dust control, etc.

Sediment, hydrocarbons, salt Industrial and commercial activities can lead to contamination of runoff from loading and unloading areas, raw material and by-product storage, vehicle maintenance and spills. Note that industrial and commercial hazardous materials are regulated under point source control programs.

Any household material deemed hazardous Go to Table of Contents. It is important to recognize that the hydrologic balance of most receiving water depends on this runoff water. Simply diverting all of the flow around a water body might help reduce a pollution load, but it could also cause the water body to dry up. The receiving water quality impacts from urban runoff vary depending upon the quality and quantity of the stormwater and the assimilative capacity, or its natural ability to absorb or accommodate certain pollutants without adverse effects, of the receiving waterbody Conservation Toronto and Region, Depending on the chemical, biological and physical character of the waterbody, its assimilative capacity can be quite different and tolerance to pollutants may vary greatly.

Some waterbodies are inherently more sensitive to types or classes of pollutants than others; for example, lakes are more sensitive to phosphorus than streams and trout streams are more sensitive to increased temperature than non-trout streams. Sediment particles also: transport other pollutants that are attached to their surfaces including nutrients, trace metals and hydrocarbons; fills ditches and small streams and clogs storm sewers and pipes, causing flooding and property damage; and reduces the capacity of wetlands, reservoirs and lakes.

Construction can also contribute construction debris, material spills and sanitary waste. However, the same concerns apply for sewage spills and accidental overflows. Warm water can hold less dissolved oxygen than cold water, so this thermal pollution further reduces oxygen levels in depleted urban streams. Temperature changes can severely disrupt certain aquatic species, such as trout and stoneflies, which can survive only within a narrow temperature range; Aesthetic impacts from floatable matter and sediments e.

Minnesota is a large and varied state. Physical elements such as climate, occurrence of water, ecology, geology, soils and topography, and cultural features such as land use vary dramatically from one end of the state to the other.

Stormwater managers in Minnesota know that conditions in the state can complicate solutions that might be simple elsewhere in the country. The extreme weather conditions cold and hot and physiographic variability under which we operate makes it impossible to generalize a single accepted approach for the entire state under all conditions.

Flexibility in approaching problems site by site is stressed in this Manual. The following section describes some of the statewide variability that can be addressed with variable techniques in the Manual. Appendix A contains a compilation of several additional graphics illustrating the differences in factors that can influence stormwater. Climate The climate of Minnesota is characteristic of a transition zone from the moist and temperate eastern U. Although the temperature discussion is interesting, this Manual has been developed to address water, so other than the fact that we experience very cold winters, temperature will not be discussed.

The major factors to focus on for good statewide stormwater management are rainfall and snowfall snowmelt. A complete picture of Minnesota stormwater runoff cannot be painted without a discussion of both. The discussion was oriented around which design events to use as a basis for unified sizing of stormwater facilities across the state. The statewide variation from less than 20 inches in the northwest to about 35 inches in the southeast is evident on the map.

The discussion was intended to set the stage for selection of the unified sizing criteria contained in Chapter Even though this publication is generally considered out of date because it does not reflect recent climate changes, there is no acceptable substitute at this time see Issue Paper B discussion.

Until such time as an acceptable replacement exists, the graphics presented in Appendix B define Table 2. Appendix B Supplemental Graphics B. Further breakdown of aerial precipitation frequencies across the state are presented in Chapter 10 see also Issue Paper B in Appendix J. Initial determination of the average amount of snowmelt runoff can be determined using the information presented in Figure 2. This shows the average snowfall depth on March 10th, an approximation of the initiation of melt in much of Minnesota, plus isolines that show the last occurrence of three-inches of standing snowpack.

The total runoff is the product of the snowpack depth times the water equivalent. For example, St. Paul would be 7 inches 0. For Tower, the snow on the ground at melt is closer to 20 inches, 72 Chapter 2, Vol. Details on the data presented in Figures 2.

Of course not all of the meltwater runs off. This graphic needs local adjustment based on knowledge of ground conditions, but it does give an approximation of the amount of melt that will soak into the ground and hence be removed from the total runoff volume.

See the equation describing this below. Physical Features Many of the physical features that influence the behavior of stormwater are not mapped at a level of sufficient enough detail for the state. This section will generally describe the features of importance and refer the user to sources of better information. Special Waters are designated in Appendix B.

In addition to the Special Waters and ORVWs, there are several other classes of sensitive receiving waters, as defined by a variety of federal, state and local entities, that receive special protections and merit additional management attention. Recommended stormwater criteria for these waters are provided in Chapter Watershed districts, watershed management and watershed-basedplanningareallcommon terms within the state. The reality associated with so many watershed units occurring in the state is that a complex planning and regulatory framework exists for water management.

Many of the sub-watersheds contained within the major watershed units have watershed management organizations that typically have some level of authority throughaWatershedDistrictorWatershed Management Organization. Information on the location and operations of these Figure 2. These are geographic areas reflective of similar ecological character assembled to define causative factors for water behavior.

Although not universally true, waters within each ecoregion should generally be similar in character, when all other factors like rainfall, land use, and land cover are similar. MPCA uses these as basic planning units for setting water quality standards and evaluating water quality variation. Keeping in mind the watershed and ecoregion within which water is being managed is an important part in structuring an effective management approach for stormwater.

The variable ecology across the state can be presented in many different ways. In most cases, the debris left behind by the glaciers provides a thick cover between the land surface and the buried surface of the underlying bedrock. In other cases, this glacial material either by-passed a location or has been eroded away, exposing bedrock to material and possibly pollution that comes from the land surface.

Figures 2. Croix River and North Shore, and scattered sedimentary outcrops all around the state present some challenges in stormwater management because of their proximity to the surface. Among those difficulties are a lack of soil depth for use of infiltration techniques, structural impairment to best management practice BMP installation St.

Louis, Crane Lake St. Louis, Duluth St. Louis, Virginia St. Louis, Meadowlands St. Louis, Embarrass St. The stormwater management implications of shallow bedrock affect infiltration, ponding depths, and the use of underground practices. Again, details can be obtained from the MGS or a reliable local source, such as the county or a local well driller.

Source: Thirty guidance manuals and many other stormwater references were reviewed to compile recommended infiltration rates. SWWD, , provides field documented data that supports the proposed infiltration rates. Such karst features, if sufficiently close to the land surface or to a ground water flow pathway, can present an opportunity for surface contaminants to enter the ground water system with very little or no treatment.

This has important implications with respect to geotechnical testing, infiltration, pre-treatment and ponding of runoff. Karst regions are predominantly found in the southeastern portion of the state, as shown in Figure 2. A statewide map of karst regions is shown in Appendix A. These areas have important implications with respect to geotechnical testing, infiltration, pretreatment and ponding of runoff.

The figure shows the difference between a generalized map 2. In karst settings where active karstic conditions within 50 feet of the surface are known to exist, additional constraints and considerations need to be evaluated prior to implementing most structural BMPs. Concerns also exist for ground water flow interruption, interflow and recharge particularly as it relates to stormwater facility, location, and size and the relationship of ground water to surface water.

Where karst conditions exist, there are no prescriptive rules of thumb or universally accepted management approaches because of the variability intrinsic to karst terrain. An adaptation of a familiar old saying is very appropriate: the only thing predictable about the behavior of water in a karst system is its unpredictability.

In general when underlying karst is known or even suspected to be present at the site, stormwaFigure 2. In other cases, it may be impossible to remove water from an area with sinkholes or away from karst geology, so common sense clean-up of the water and discharge into the karstic area is a reasonable management approach, especially if some filtering soil is available between the land surface and the karst formation.

More in-depth discussion of karst occurs in the Chapter 10 discussion of special stormwater management approaches and in Chapter Soils are extremely variable throughout the state, but fortunately good information on local soil conditions is usually available.

Details on surficial soils generally to a depth of about six feet are contained in county soil surveys, which are available from the U. Soil surveys for much of the state have been digitized to make electronic use practical. Note, however, that these surveys are not accurate enough to determine site specific characteristics suitable for many BMP applications, so a detailed site analysis is recommended. The primary reason for this is that soils can vary substantially with depth, and the county soil surveys depict only surficial mapped units.

On a local scale the absence of good soils that can absorb runoff i. The infiltration rates noted in this table are conservative estimates of long-term, sustainable infiltration rates that have been documented in Minnesota. They are based on in-situ measurement within existing infiltration practices in Minnesota, rather than national numbers or rates based on laboratory columns.

That is, these soils can certainly be used in a system that relies only on a small amount of infiltration similar to the small amount that inherently exists on site. If a manager wants to match pre-development volume for all soils, it is apparent that D soils will continue to yield low infiltration.

Pre-development condition is defined in Table Soils with large percentages of sand and separate from the water table transmit water very quickly and might work extremely well for infiltration practices provided precautions are taken to protect the ground water from the introduction of polluting materials.

The level of treatment in sandy soils is quite variable. Although the sands can act similar to a sand filter for particulate material, soluble pollutants generally move through the soil quite rapidly and unattenuated. Similar large expanses of sandy soils exist elsewhere in Minnesota and should be recognized when planning a BMP strategy. For example, the steep slopes along the North Shore and along many major river banks requires a far different approach than those practices where a deep soil cover exists on a flat plain or slowly rolling hills.

Cultural Features Most of the cultural variation in the state relates to the land uses that have developed. Although the major focus of this Manual is on urbanized land uses, many urbanizing type activities, such as road building, transcend a single land use and apply throughout the state. Also in many cases urbanization occurs on land that was previously altered by agricultural, silvicultural, or pre-development activity.

How This Manual Will Help The above scenario points out the many challenges faced as Minnesota develops, but there is a positive side. The citizens of Minnesota long ago realized the potential for worsening water quality as the state grew. The solution they discovered was not to stop growth, but rather to plan for how it happens and to institute protective actions to prevent many of the negative impacts. It is virtually impossible to prevent all negative impacts, but there is a realistic expectation that efforts to minimize the impact should occur.

This is the basis for the stormwater regulatory program in place in the state. There are also many new and ever-evolving ways to manage the runoff and eliminate some of the pollution associated with it. These best management practices are proven effective measures that are readily available in both structural and non-structural ways.

There are best solutions that can be chosen for specific applications to solve specific problems, hence the name best management practice. The Minnesota stormwater Manual provides insight for Minnesota stormwater managers on the nature of the stormwater problem in the state, as well as guidance on how to manage it using many available tools.

We do not have to accept the situation portrayed in Figure 2. This is a major objective of this Manual. General Principles for Stormwater Management6. A performance based approach to action means that a management plan is put together focused on achieving or maintaining a certain goal.

The methods used to achieve the goal are not entirely prescriptive. This allows the stormwater manager the flexibility to be innovative. There are several principles consistent with integrated stormwater management and the treatment train approach that this Manual uses to promote proper runoff management.

Simple is okay. Alexander, E. Gao, Copyrighted map of Minnesota Karst Lands. Copublished with the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. Georgia State of , Stormwater Management Manual. Granger, R. Gray, and G. Dick, Snowmelt Infiltration to Frozen Soils. Canadian Journal of Earth Science, Great Lakes Association. Normal Annual Precipitation. Natural Resource Conservation Service. Schueler, T. Weather Bureau D.

Hershfield , Integrated stormwater management is simply thinking about all of the factors that somehow affect precipitation as it moves from the land surface to an eventual receiving water. It is the process of accounting for all of these factors e. The treatment train approach to runoff management mimics the sequence as the stormwater manager looks at the runoff problem and determines how best to address it, starting with the most basic of questions and increasing in complexity only if needed, since simple methods of management are often the most practical.

A regulator might view it as a check to see if a simple approach could replace something more complicated and expensive. Project Scope The first step in integrated stormwater management is determining the scope of the project and the likely solutions that will be needed.

If on-site, simple practices will solve the problem, a non- or minimum-structural approach can be pursued. If problems extend off-site and impact a major regional water body, then a broader scale will need to be pursued and commensurate BMPs chosen. The decisions will always be influenced by the regulatory requirements associated with the action.

Additional local or watershed requirements may also be required Chapter 5. Retrofits or actions not creating new impervious area can introduce creative or innovative solutions, such as supplemental sub-grade infiltration, proprietary filters or wetland polishing. Note that these can also be part of the regulated treatment train. CHaPter 3. Twelve principles that help define the successful integration of a stormwater practice in the landscape include: 1.

Provides Reliable Pollutant Removal Performance. The practice should be sized so that it captures sufficient volume of runoff and employs a sequence of pollutant removal mechanisms via a treatment train approach to maximize the removal of key pollutants of concern. Mimics Pre-development Hydrology. The practice should operate in a manner so as to replicate pre-development hydrology for a range of storm events such that it safely recharges ground water, protects downstream channels and reduces off-site flood damage.

Integrates the Practice into Overall Site Design. The overall design of the site should support the function and performance of the practice, by minimizing or disconnecting impervious cover, implementing source controls, and utilizing better site design practices that reduce the quantity and adverse quality effects of runoff generated by the site. Has a Sustainable Maintenance Burden.

Both routine and long—term maintenance tasks should be carefully considered throughout the design process to reduce life cycle maintenance costs and promote longevity of the practice. Is Accepted by the Public. The practice should be viewed as an attractive community amenity by adjacent residents or business owners, as measured by interviews, surveys, testimonials, increased property values and other yardsticks.

Creates Attractive Landscape Features. The practice should be an integrated practice designed to be highly visible within the site and serve as an attractive and inviting landscape feature. Confers Multiple Community Benefits. An integrated practice should also contribute to other community benefits such as promoting neighborhood revitalization, expanding recreational opportunities, and educating residents about stormwater. Creatively Uses Vegetation.

An integrated practice not only greens up the site, but also uses vegetation to effectively promote cooling, shading, screening, habitat and enhanced pollutant removal functions. The design should also explicitly consider how vegetation will be managed over time to maintain functions and minimize maintenance costs.

Provides a Model for Future Improvement. An integrated practice is inspected, evaluated, or monitored so that lessons can be learned to improve the performance and integrate future designs. Realizes Additional Environmental Benefits. The design of an integrated practice maximizes other environmental benefits at the site, such as the creation of aquatic or terrestrial habitat, protection of existing natural areas, reduction of urban heat island effects and other urban amenities.

Reduces Infrastructure Costs. An integrated practice reduces the amount of paving, curbs, storm drain pipes and other infrastructure that would have otherwise been employed in a traditional stormwater practice design within the community. Acceptable Life Cycle Costs. An integrated practice will not result in high life cycle costs over its useful life.

Watershed Approach Minnesota has a long-standing tradition of approaching water management on a watershed system basis. Landmark legislation in the state has mandated watershed-based planning and management for over 50 years. For example, if the water leaving the site discharges to a trout stream rather than a lake, a different set of BMPs that focuses on temperature control rather than phosphorus removal will be pursued.

Use and Restoration of Natural Resources The occurrence of natural features, such as wetlands, forest, natural drainage features, original topography, undisturbed soils, and open space on a site should be viewed as a positive thing.

These features can be preserved to minimize the impact of development, used as an integral part of the treatment train, or even enhanced to improve site hydrology or the quality of runoff leaving the site. Following this approach can lead to cost savings, as well as added environmental protection. Water Quantity and Quality Integrated stormwater management requires a complete look at both the movement and content of runoff water. Focusing exclusively on one or the other might meet a specific regulatory requirement, but will not result in effective overall stormwater management.

Discussion of the quality impacts occurred in Chapter 2 and will not be repeated here. However further discussion of quantity impacts is warranted. Rate and Volume Control In its early stages, stormwater management was primarily concerned only with quantity control. Urban hydrology techniques focused mostly on peak flow rate control and addressed volume in terms of flood control. The standard approaches for rate control have been greatly refined over the years, with more attention on mimicking pre-development or natural conditions See discussion in Chapter Volume control, on the other hand, has been something more difficult to achieve.

The following section addresses the techniques that should be considered when a need exists to address stormwater quantity leaving a site. Relying solely on rate reduction for stormwater control led to many system failures as volume and quality factors were left uncontrolled. Although not universally true, advancement in the state of the art for rate Go to Table of Contents. Chapters within this Manual take the stormwater manager beyond flood protection to hydrograph-frequency matching, downstream channel protection and control techniques designed to maximize water quality improvement from the commonly occurring events that account for most of the runoff.

Reference to this chapter and Chapters 4, 8, 9 and 10, as well as Issue Papers B, D, E, F, and G, found in Appendix J, provides some insight to the reasons for rate control and tools available to accomplish it. Clearly stormwater management needs to include volume control.

The term volume reduction can be easily confused with infiltration. One does not, however, necessarily equate to the other. There are many additional techniques and BMPs that can be applied to yield volume reductions. Infiltration is certainly one of these practices, but it is only one of many. In circumstances where soils are too tight or where infiltration would endanger ground water, alternatives are available Table 3.

The following categorical methods for volume reduction, while certainly not all-inclusive, can provide some ideas for how a stormwater manager could reduce the volume of runoff leaving a parcel of land. The most commonly used method to reduce site volume is to soak it into the soil. The result of this action is a direct reduction in volume running off of the land surface. The biggest requirement for use of infiltration is the ability of the soil and the shallow ground water system to accept the water.

The distinction between infiltration and recharge is a narrow one that can usually be ignored. Commonly, infiltration is the process of soaking water into the ground, while recharge is the movement of water into the ground water system. Recharge occurs to both shallow and deep ground water systems. Low impact development LID , better site design BSD , sustainable development, and other terms see Chapter 4 are all variations of an approach that mimics natural conditions by soaking water into the ground close to where it falls.

Use of these methods along with reduction of impervious areas reduces overall runoff volume and may be a component in many, but certainly not all runoff management plans. Reduction of connected impervious area and retention of natural drainage patterns and surfaces are the heart of these methods.

Chapters 12 and 13 address the caution that should be followed whenever infiltration is used as a management technique. In areas with tight soils, holding water in wetlands, depressions, swales or any similar land feature that exposes water to the air will result in evaporation of that water. In addition, allowing it to come in contact with roots either in standing water wetland or by soaking into the root zone, will yield volume reduction through transpiration.

In fact, this and reforestation can be used as stormwater management techniques. Where soils provide a constraint, under-drains can provide a means through which water can be routed through the root zone for root uptake, but excess can be captured after filtration and drained to a collection system.

This option results in some net reduction in volume and adds filtration as a supplemental treatment. Many bioretention treatment techniques take advantage of this method of volume reduction. The combined infiltration plus ET rates for Minnesota can vary across the state from 11 inches in the northeast to 23 inches in the south. The complex relationship among precipitation, runoff, infiltration, and ET is discussed by Baker et al. They discuss the details and methods used to divide the water that falls as precipitation into several categories reflective of where it ends up.

Obviously, routing water to areas where it can soak into the ground or to areas with vegetation that can take it up through root action are two very good ways to reduce overall stormwater volume if adequate space is available. Retaining water somewhere along the path from where it falls to where it enters a drainage system is another way to limit volume. Simple contained storage directly connected to buildings or impervious areas are effective volume reducers and provide an opportunity for water re-use, such as irrigation.

A rain barrel, cistern, sub-grade storage device, or even a yard ornamental pond can hold enough water to contain much of the volume coming from a home. Even a pond or a wetland can reduce overall volume because they provide a quiescent area where water can collect and evaporate. This is possible even when rainfall is much less because water is routed to these holding areas from a much larger watershed.

Getting rid of water was the common way to deal with stormwater before the results of that action were realized. Rushing water to a drain pipe, then into a receiving water is now considered a last resort. Using pervious approaches such as vegetated drainage swales and native grass filter strips, in combination with check dams give water a chance to soak into the ground or be filtered before it reaches a location where damage takes place.

As with the practices above, volume reduction is an outcome of exposing stormwater to a pervious surface even while it is moving. See Chapter 12 for filtration and infiltration BMPs that would fit in this category. Anselm in Rome where he specialized in sacramental theology and earned a licentiate in and a doctorate in sacred theology in McKnight was ordained a priest on May 28, for the Diocese of Wichita.

From to he was the parish vicar at Blessed Sacrament in Wichita. At Newman University , he was the chaplain and adjunct professor in and which overlapped with his time as pastor of Saint Mark the Evangelist parish in Colwich, Kansas from to From to he served as diocesan director of divine worship, diocesan consultor and member of the presbyteral council.

He returned to the Josephinum as the director of liturgy from to , assistant professor from to , dean of students from to , director of formation from to and vice-president for development and alumni relations from to McKnight was pastor at Blessed Sacrament in Wichita from to He served as pastor from to He was consecrated on February 6, Bishop McKnight is part of the planning team for a project funded by the John Templeton Foundation at John Carroll University to re-engage science in the seminary.

McKnight wrote a dissertation on the permanent diaconate under the guidance of Father James Puglisi, a Franciscan Friar of the Atonement and the director of the Ecumenical Center in Rome studying sacramental theology. He is the author of Understanding the Diaconate. This research proposes the deacon as a servant of the bond of communion within the Church facilitating the relationship between the bishop or priest and his people , and between the People of God and the individual in need.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American prelate of the Catholic Church born This biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification. Please help by adding reliable sources. Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately , especially if potentially libelous or harmful. His Excellency , The Most Reverend. Biography portal Catholicism portal United States portal.

Holy See Press Office. Retrieved November 21, Columbia Missourian. Retrieved Shawn McKnight, S. Catholic Diocese of Jefferson City Press release. Science and Faith in Seminary Formation. Roman Catholic Diocese of Jefferson City. Joseph M. Gaydos Shawn McKnight. Martin's Church, Starkenburg St.

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